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September 27, 2014 @ 12:12 pm

Being Wrong is a Good Thing (as long as we learn from it)

Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. started up again last night (at least, on my DVR it did).  The baddie du jour was Carl “Crusher” Creel, the Absorbing Man.  Like Colossus becomes solid metal, Creel can become whatever he touches.  In the comics, he's an Avengers-level badass, like DC's Metamorpho but dumber.  Metamorpho at least took high school chemistry and knows how to apply it.  Creel just bulks up and punches things.  In the show his transformations were usually partial, to limit him enough that the SHIELD team could kind of handle him, which was probably a good decision.

In the comics, Creel's powers were magical, the result of some weird Asgardian potion, if I remember correctly.  In the show, they wisely just said, We don't know how he does it.  A technobabble explanation would just alienate the scientists and the continuity geeks, and the muggles everyone is now trying to recruit to watch all this geek-porn that's being produced wouldn't care, anyway.

Much of science fiction is only flavored with science, anyway.  Some of that is cynical, but there are people who are interested in the real science but not trained as working scientists.  I think I met one of those last night – Piper Kessler, who writes the web series Frequency, which is a romance between psychic time-traveling lesbians.

There are certain non-scientific phenomena that get updated whenever new science appears to maintain plausibility.  It's the same emotional issue to deal with, but the metaphors used to explore the issue shift over time.  Aliens are one.  They used to be fairies and angels and demons; and then they were extraterrestrials, or time travelers; and now they're often extradimensionals.  Psychic powers are another. 

In the earlier part of the 20th century they were imagined to be based on electromagnetic waves, like radio (thus blockable by hats made of tinfoil).  Marvel Comics, using a particle physics metaphor, invented the psion, a subatomic particle that psychics could manipulate with their minds.  They also had a villain called Graviton, who was based on the real theoretical subatomic particle of the same name.  I don't mean the particles are real (noone's found them), I mean that the theory was proposed by professional physicists in a serious way, not as a jokey plot device by a bunch of comics guys.  Confusing, I know.  Nowadays psychic phenomena are more often presented as phenomena somehow related to quantum physics, except on a human scale, like in this video, "Alice in Quantumland," last year's runner-up in a contest run by the journal Nature. 

And that's a good thing, as far as it goes.  Stories are a really useful tool for thinking about unintuitive phenomena.  Not as good as mathematical models for prediction, but much better than nothing.  Probably better than mathematical models for helping people think about the meaning of unintuitive phenomena.

Anyhow, Piper Kessler's psychics are based on brainwaves.  When many thousands of neurons are spiking in synchrony, those tiny electrical disturbances add up into larger voltage changes that can be measured on the scalp through a machine called an EEG.  When they're out of synchrony, the spikes average out.  Different behavioral states tend to have different synchronous frequency bands.  For instance, deep sleep is usually marked by average frequencies of less than 4 cycles per second, called delta waves.  It's kind of like watching the clouds from an old-school weather satellite.  You can see big things like hurricanes and the jet stream but not what's going on at street level, not traffic patterns within a single city.  Modern spy satellites, of course, have much better cameras and can supposedly read license plates.  You can read a lot more detail about EEG on Wikipedia.

Ms. Kessler's metaphor is unrealistically fine-grained.  For instance, during her talk on Thursday about her fictional psychics she described telepathy is the same frequency as happiness, exactly 30Hz.  Clairvoyance (displayed by Meredith Sause's character Claire) uses a different frequency, time travel another, and memory wiping and magical healing still others.  That is sort of logical, as far as it goes, but it doesn't take into account most of the complexities of EEG, like it varies with different locations in the brain, or that those powers don't have anything to do with one another.

And you know what?  That's OK.  Many years of educational research have shown us that our undertanding of the physical world is based on internal mental models.  Those models are never perfect, but they get better with experience.  Making wrong predictions and updating the models based on the results of our experiments is one very important way of learning about complicated topics.  Ms. Kessler played around with her fictional model in a logical, narrative way, and she predicted that if her character Deena the dentist practiced trying to control her brainwaves, she'd be able to achieve a particular frequency and learn to time travel.  What she actually got (at first, at least) was telepathy.

That particular hypothesis was in fact correct.  Not the telepathy, but the ability to shift the dominant frequency band of brain activity.  It's been shown in controlled experiments that trained meditators can enter different attentional states more or less at will.  These states display specific frequency bands.  There's even a New Agey biofeedback-based video game called Wild Divine that's designed to teach people to manipulate their attentional state.  There's also some evidence that trained meditators have more control over their moods, that they can deliberately generate positive emotions, which shift activity to the left hemisphere of the brain.  So Ms. Kessler was right about the phenomenon, but wrong about the basis (location, not frequency alone).

Again, that's good.  That's all any of us science types are ever doing, telling stories to ourselves and our students about our data.  We just have special cultural rituals and tools for doing it that are more effective for the specific purpose of making predictions.  Those rituals and tools are not very useful for people outside the trained “priesthood,” and they aren't very good for coming to terms with difficult situations on an emotional level.  Stories are better for that.

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September 21, 2014 @ 9:30 pm

Episode 68: Book Review of ‘The Man from Mars’

"This series presents information based in part on theory and conjecture. The producer's purpose is to suggest some possible explanations, but not necessarily the only ones, to the mysteries we will examine."
--official disclaimer, In Search Of
That show gave me nightmares.
Fred Nadis's website (his other book Wonder Shows looks pretty neat, too)
A neat and extensive wiki built by college students at Georgia Tech (check out their Reptoids coverage)
Also search this blog for "conspiracy"
A Brief History of Lovecraft's Necronomicon

http://sacred-texts.com/nec/

The X-Files
Quote Game: Scully or Blanche DuBois?  ( I got a C -- 7/10)
In Search Of, with Leonard Nimoy (I never knew that he was a replacement for Rod Serling)
00:0000:00
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August 24, 2014 @ 1:00 pm

Extinction Level Events

I spent 5 days in Washington, D.C. last week with my family. We biked the mall to see the various monuments. We selectively toured some Smithsonia (or is it Smithsonians?); check the Facebook page for that album, including the Hall of Human Origins exhibit. We hadn't really inherited anything recently, so we slept on the floor of one of my wife's grad school buddies. Oh, and my son attended the World Pokemon Championships, not as a contestant, but as a fanboy journalist, hoping to score some footage for his YouTube channel. Of course, being twelve, he got so excited by being there that he forgot to record anything. Maybe there was some inheritance displayed there, after all.

My wife had gotten Huckleberry Finn on CD for the car, but we blew that off for a bunch of year-old Escape Pod episodes. Two Ken Liu stories were particularly resonant with my current life stage.  "Good Hunting" was about the ways in which people (including magical ones) adapt to a changing environment. In some ways it was like Larry Niven's The Magic Goes Away, but richer on an emotional level, and deliberately remixing several subgenres, from fantasy to steampunk.  "Mono No Aware" was likewise sad, what with the destruction of human society and such, but there too, it was the father/son stuff that had me all verklempt.

My son is now producing his own comics, his own vodcast on YouTube. He's never listened to VSI (except when I made him), and he's only reluctantly helped me with a few episodes, but it seems that he was paying attention, that he was watching me work, and that something was inherited there. A transfer of some sort took place. Of course, like the three generations of the Wyeth family mentioned in this exhibit that I saw at the National Gallery of Art, it wasn't a perfect transfer. Grandfather NC was mostly an workman, an illustrator of other people's adventure stories; father Andrew was your classic tortured fine artist, painting the same things over and over again; and son Jamie seems more laid back. My son's channel is only about games, and he's already more invested in the process of production, in making the pieces look and sound fancy, than I ever had time for. In fact, he spent part of his Saturday morning yesterday at the Apple store, learning some new editing tricks for iMovie.

So, with the tenure-track position having crashed (in slow motion, and not without warning, rather like the asteroid in "Mono No Aware"), what's next? First, obviously, survival. That's what this fall's adjunct class at Guilford College is about. The household economic machine needs just that much lubrication to keep humming along on one full-time salary while I'm building up my new company, Agnosia Media, LLC.

More importantly, from your point of view, what about VSI, the blog and podcast? Well, the BEACON funding is at least temporarily gone. I've been promising them that I'd start accepting donations like Escape Pod does. Podbean has some different revenue streams I might be able to take advantage of, as long as I don't run afoul of any NSF rules. Content produced with government money is supposed to be public domain, if I remember correctly. Donations to produce new stuff should be OK, but I'll have to check on that.

Short answer, we are not extinct. Expect ongoing goodness.

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June 25, 2014 @ 1:40 pm

Depictions of mental illness in pop culture: a comparative case study of The Tick vs. The Maxx

How's that for an informative, authoritative, academic-sounding title?  Right out of the Journal of Popular Culture.

I had a subscription to that journal for a year, because registering for the meeting automatically subscribed me (neat marketing trick; I should remember that).  Articles were like medical case studies, in that they were qualitative descriptions.  Points were made by choosing quotes that supported the author's view much more often than by systematically counting the number of times a word was used or an event happened.  Something like:

The Tick is a farce, a sitcom, a parody of the conventions in superhero comics.  Most of the "heroes" spend their time displaying conventional petty social dynamics.  For instance, the cowardly Der Fleidermaus (a parody of Batman) spends most of his time boasting and hitting on women.  Bipolar Bear is a throwaway joke.
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http:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqvitALivzE

Only the Tick, whose social awkardness and verbal malapropisms label him as generically insane, really believes in selfless action, even to the extent of risking his own life.

The Maxx, on the other hand, is homeless.  He lives in a box in an alley.  He has great difficulty distinguishing inner from outer reality, exemplified by the catch-phrase,

"Damn.  Talking out loud again." 

While these behaviors are played for laughs, it is also quite obvious that the Maxx is in deep emotional pain.  Other characters in the show are also experiencing mental difficulties.  These are likewise approached ironically, but realistically.  The teenager Sarah, who is clearly depressed, considers suicide at one point...

Pretty low on the evidence scale, as used by most doctors and scientists.

https://consortiumlibrary.org/aml/researchaids/ebp/ebp_pyramid_quantitative.pdf

However, there's a second scale (from the same website) for qualitative research, "showing relative usefulness of different types of evidence to answer meaning or experience questions."

https://consortiumlibrary.org/aml/researchaids/ebp/ebp_pyramid_qualitative.pdf

For example, what is it like to be mentally ill?  There have been attempts to simulate hallucinations.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vvU-Ajwbok

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s33Y5nI5Wbc

http://www.pmsmicro.com/pms_virtualschizophrenia.html

But I find these do not generate a lot of empathy within students (a qualitative observation, to be sure).  Something like The Maxx, with a compelling storyline and art that expresses the character's emotional state seems to work better.

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June 20, 2014 @ 7:28 pm

A Grievous Oversight (x2!)

According to the custom Google search embedded in the Podbean site, and half an hour of dedicated human searching, I have never mentioned The Maxx on this blog.  Not once.  Which is odd, because it is one of my favorite bits of pop culture ever. 

Not believing this result, I did an experiment.  I did a second search for The Tick, which I'm pretty sure I've mentioned on here.  Nothing.  Even stranger.  So I wasted the better part of an hour searching month by month trying to prove the search algorithm wrong.  Nothing.  Finally, I did a more intelligent control by searching for something I know should be there: Game of Thrones.  Ten results at least.  Doh!

So, in celebration of two of my favorite mentally disturbed heroes,
http://blindbraille.deviantart.com/art/The-Tick-vs-The-Maxx-136680249

The_Tick_vs_The_Maxx_by_blindBraille.jpg

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June 15, 2014 @ 11:50 am

Aaaaaaahh. . .

The title refers not to the aargh.jpgof comic book pain and anguish (or of pirate parlance).  Neither is it the Aieee! of fear.  No, it is rather the Aaaahhh of relief.  The relief of having quit a job.  The relief of ending sixth grade.  The relief of my family going on vacation without me.  Most of all, the relief of writing again.

With all the wrap-up required in my last semester at A&T, I allowed the Podbean payment to lapse for over a month.  This meant that I basically stopped writing during that period, except for posting little things to the Facebook page.  Since BEACON is no longer funding the podcast, and I no longer work at A&T, there's some legitimate question as to what will happen to the show.  Podbean yanked access as soon as the money ran out, although there's supposed to be a free option for podcasting.  That means I may have to move the content to someplace free, as suggested by Tom Barbalet of the Biota podcast a couple of years ago.  Technically, the content belongs to A&T, but pretty clearly they aren't interested in it (at least my former department wasn't).  So that's a bit up in the air.  Don't worry, though -- we've got year to figure it out before I'd have to pay the Podbean Piper again.
For the next six weeks, after six years away, I'm back to teaching at the North Carolina Governor's School, so any posts and podcasts will be connected to that in some way.  After that. . . ?  Wait and see.  No, that's not me stalling like a cheesy chatbot trying to win a Turing test.  I do in fact have plans a-plenty.  I'm just due on campus after lunch.
UPDATE: David Lewis's book Science for Sale (reviewed below) is out as of June 3rd.  Look for it.  I was reminded of this when our local NPR affiliate ran what has become a standard story, repeating the fraud charges against Andrew Wakefield.  "Aren't journalists supposed to fact-check their sources?" says the blogger who probably did exactly the same thing at one point.
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April 19, 2014 @ 6:03 pm

Bad News Water Bears

On episode 2 of Cosmos, Neil de Grasse Tyson shrinks "The Ship of the Imagination" and goes looking for the toughest animal on the planet, which has been through all 5 mass extinctions.  He even touches on the theory of Panspermia, that life on Earth might have started somewhere else, since these things have been shown to survive both high radiation and the cold vacuum of space.

waterbearcomic.jpeg
Though Tyson (of the Bronx, not Gallifrey) is essentially piloting a shinier Tardis, that has nothing at all to do with the scientific name of the water bear.  "Tardigrade" translates from the Latin Tardus = slow or sluggish + gradi = to walk.  What with the wrinkles, and the claws, and whatever that lumpy mass in its armpit is, it does look more like a bargain-basement Dr. Who alien from the 70s, than it does a son of Krypton.  But when I saw the segment it recombined in my head with the documentary Superheroes: A Never-Ending Battle into this throwaway visual joke. 

Unlike most of my throwaway ideas, though, I actually sat down and drew this one out!  Well, sort of.  I more or less traced the doctor from Action Comics #1 and squeezed the tardigrade in Superman's position.  There wasn't room for all eight legs, but adding the third one was suggestive, I think.  It's not so much the drawing as product that I'm so unreasonably happy about.  It's more the process of picking up a pencil and then having the courage to show it publicly.  As a teacher, I've been doing the public speaking thing for so long now that I've forgotten what it's like to be crushingly nervous in front of an audience, which is THE major concern for so many of my students.  So, inspired by a short conversation with animator Meg Rosenberg  of TrueAnomalies.com at SciOnline in Raleigh, I'm stretching a little bit.  There will be more of this kind of thing.

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April 18, 2014 @ 1:14 pm

Your Inner Fish: Stupid Design

Shubin did some neat bits on the first show that I don’t remember from the book (I always appreciate that kind of value-added filmmaking).  The time-lapse dissection of a human hand was especially cool, but my favorite one was the visit to the fish market to look at fish balls.  This was PBS, so they used the least offensive scientific word “gonads,” when they found them up near the heart.  Now, I already knew that human testicles have to descend through the body wall into the scrotum, and that this passage leaves weak spots in the body wall that are vulnerable to herniation.  What I did not know, was how far the testicles have to descend.  Just like in the fish, human testicles form way up near the heart.  Why?  Because our ancestors were fish, and our embryos are basically tweaked fish embryos.

I like to call this stupid design, in contrast to intelligent design.  This is kind of an obvious joke, and although I did come up with it on my own, I did not come up with it first.  Here’s a lecture from at least 5 years ago by Neil deGrasse Tyson.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4238NN8HMgQ

This is not uncommon in science.  Alfred Russell Wallace came up with the idea of evolution while Darwin was still fiddling around, and ultimately (accidentally) pushed Darwin into publishing first.

The history of science is actually full of comedy.  Take this marvelous series, which I am totally going to start following on Twitter.

http://twentytwowords.com/scientists-explain-their-processes-with-a-little-too-much-honesty-17-pictures/

This kind of thing can be really helpful to leaven a serious message.  David Lewis was very earnest in his book Science for Sale.  How much would he and the National Whistleblower's Center benefit from working with a John Stewart, in terms of getting their message out?

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April 17, 2014 @ 10:35 pm

Are You Blogging Fargo Episode 1?

Yes, dear.

Man-o-man, that Billy Bob Thornton gets him some some good monologues goin’ there.  Example:

tumblr_inline_n4182sS3ll1qzrx6e.gif

Your problem is you spent your whole life thinking there are rules.  There aren’t.  We used to be gorillas.  All we had was what we could take and defend.  Truth is, you’re more of a man than you were yesterday. . . It’s a red tide, Lester, this life of ours.  The shit they make us eat, day after day -- the boss, the wife, et cetera, wearing us down.  If you don’t stand up to it, let ‘em know you’re still an ape -- deep down, where it counts -- you’re just gonna get washed away.”

-Lorne Malvo

(great name, by the way)

There’s another one about dragons that I won’t ruin for you.  But that’s what this show is about.  Steven Pinker did a TED talk about how relatively peaceful most of us humans are now.  Murder rates are tiny compared to what they were during the Middle Ages, or even during colonial times, before “the civilizing influence of the market economy.”

http://ncpedia.org/gouging

Most of us are not Steve Rogers, or David Lewis, or even Officer Molly.  Most of us are Officer Grimly, or Lester Nygaard.  Most of us are neither heroes nor monsters.  Most of us are cowards and conformists.  Most of us have been successfully trained by our culture to whitewash our rage, most of the time.  We usually die before that training fails. 

What makes someone like David Lewis from my last post so interesting, so special, is that he successfully threads the needle.  He pulls a Buddha Third Way.  He neither gives up and surrenders to the corrupt institutions, nor succumbs to savagery or even dirty politics. 

How does he do that?  My wife says he must have a very supportive life partner.  She's probably right.  And just for the record, after viewing this episode she did in fact make me promise never to hit her in the head with a ball-peen hammer.  I protested that such a thing was never in the wedding vows, but it did no good.

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April 16, 2014 @ 12:53 pm

April Showers Bring Winter Soldiers

Last night was rainy and cold for April, and I was alone.  So after watching part of the first episode of Neil Shubin’s Your Inner Fish until 6:15 or so, I popped over to Lucky 32 for supper -- smoked salmon and breaded , deep-fried balls of mashed potatoes.  I’m always saying to my students that there’s no such thing as perfection in this world, but that meal was pretty damned close.  Given the weather and my recent illnesses, I was definitely in the mood for comfort food.  And Laurelyn Dosset was there playing rainy-day songs, which was very nice.

Of course, I had to be a killjoy by bringing along my advance copy of David Lewis’s Science for Sale.  I’ve been slogging through this book a little at a time for a couple of months now.  It’s a complex story, and Lewis doesn’t tell it that well.  He tries to personalize it, but the way he inserts his anecdotes of human folly are more distracting than illuminating.  He could really use an editor and a timeline – actually a series of parallel timelines, because of all the multitasking.

Before we get into the actual controversy, to set the stage, you know who David Lewis reminds me of?  Captain America!  Lewis is sort of this Super-Soldier of Science, innocently running rings around Falcon and the reflecting pool at the Washington Monument.  The quality of his science is just better.  The quality of his morals is just better.  He’s patient, and careful, and brave.  He never gets tired of getting screwed over by Hydra, never gets depressed and drunk and pitiful, never freaks out and murders one of his own superiors for testing bargain-basement versions of the Super-Soldier Serum on poor black GIs like Isaiah Bradley.  The main difference is that the good Captain usually wins.

portrait_incredible.jpg

In the largest sense, plot-wise, Science for Sale is structured a lot like The Winter Soldier, except the situation is worse – more complicated, more decentralized, more insidious.  In the book, self-serving bastards have infiltrated not just S.H.I.E.L.D., but every government agency that funds science, every university that receives government grant money, as well as the journals that report scientific results.  The movie has a single world domination doomsday conspiracy; the book shows a web of little conspiracies designed to empower individual competing groups (like Steve Jackson’s Illuminati game).  Lewis focuses on three specific little conspiracies that he encountered during his scientific career.  I will treat them as separate episodes, like a comic from the 60s, instead of interweaving them into a longer arc, like a modern comic.

ONE.  People don’t clean their surgical instruments properly, and this spreads disease.  Dental drills suck blood into their interiors.  If they aren’t sterilized properly, they can transfer bacteria and viruses from one patient to another.  The same goes for the flexible endoscopes that proctologists stuff up people’s bums to take pictures of the inside of the colon, or to remove cancerous growths that show up on the photos.  Half-assed cleanings do not in fact sterilize these instruments, and occasionally an individual gets sick for no apparent reason.  These kinds of rare events are easy to imagine, but documenting them is quite difficult, requiring a lot of effort that most people are not willing to put in.  It’s not even a proper conspiracy, just a bunch of lazy doctors and dentists who aren’t following the manufacturer’s directions.  Angie’s List could take care of this problem.

Tired of lousy service and HIV infections?

Hail HYDRA! Full dental!

Bob agent of Hydra - Marvel Comics - Deadpool ally

TWO.  Lewis wades into the vaccine controversy.  Just to show how unclear the scientific community itself currently is on this issue, I had two postdoc guests at Science Cafe last month repeat the British Medical Journal’s claims of scientific fraud against Andrew Wakefield.  They did not mention his name, and given the mocking and dismissive tone they used, I don’t think it was out of respect or restraint.  I don’t think they knew his name.  I’m not knocking them; I didn’t know the story either until our favorite shield-slinger David Lewis told it.  I think I may have even linked to the hack job at some point (for which I apologize, and if I find that link I will remove it).  The basics are that the British government did a hack job on Wakefield.  According to Lewis (and this is easily checkable), Wakefield never said that vaccines cause autism.  He said in one paper that the MMR vaccine was correlated with a particularly nasty form of bowel inflammation.  He said in a different paper, based on different subjects, that autism was correlated with gastrointestinal ailments (not at all controversial, according to my two Science Cafe guests).  The hack job conflated these two papers and then invented evidence to prove that he was wrong about something he never said (Hail Hydra!).

Lewis’s deconstruction of this is long, detailed, and complicated, going back to medical reports and histology slides of samples of damaged tissue from the bowels of patients.  There’s a link to his previous work on endoscopes, but a lot of his involvement seems to be Cap-like, that he’s out looking for trouble, searching for wrongs to right.  Like he doesn’t have enough to do running his own lab at the EPA.  What kind of Super-Scientist Serum is this guy on, or is he just mainlining some kind of caffeine-amphetamine cocktail through his spinal cord like Bane?

THREE.  Here’s the big one, the mind-bender, the unbelievable rot that goes all the way to the top.  Take all the human shit from a wastewater treatment plant.  This is not just normal human shit full of friendly members of the human microbiome.  This includes shit from nursing homes, hospitals, prisons, whatever – full of unfriendly, antibiotic-resistant pathogens.  It also includes the actual antibiotics and other drugs that patients have taken.  It also includes whatever regulated industrial wastes that have been “accidentally spilled,” as well as the unregulated stuff that we don’t even know about.  Take all of that stuff, which is totally illegal to leave in the water or the air, and dump it on farmland.  Call it fertilizer.  Get the EPA, the same organization that enforces the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, to fund university scientists to say that this is a good idea.  Claim that the organic material (the shit) prevents the toxins from entering the food chain, when any first-grader who watched the Lion King knows that the whole point of organic material is that it breaks down and “becomes the grass.”  Push this sludge magic farther and claim that shit can bind existing toxins, and start spraying it on lead-contaminated Baltimore neighborhoods.  Hell, just start feeding sewage sludge pills to prisoners.  HAIL HYDRA!

See what I’m talking about?  Any one of those could be a movie, or a sub-plot lasting months in a comic.  The overall arc could span a couple of years.  In reality, these three (or four) plots consumed years of David Lewis’s life.  The sludge monsters never tried to assassinate him like Nick Fury, but they got him fired from the EPA (or “retired,” in bureaucrat language).  He still hasn’t given up like a normal person would.  He’s still fighting these battles as part of the National Whistleblower’s Center, funding his research Robin Hood-style, with money from court settlements.  But he’s also apparently a good Christian, with no hate in him.

I’ve always been much more a fan of Captain America than The Punisher (even Batman doesn’t go around with a big-ass skull on his chest).  I think revenge is usually counter-productive.  Marvel has definitely moved in the direction of fighting fire with bullets (see previous post on their movie version of Falcon), and this bothers me some.  I prefer poetic justice.  I wonder how fast this issue would get resolved if these biosolids were instead dumped on million-dollar estates and gated communities?  Or on Disneyworld – you know they own Marvel, now, right?  How would they tell this story if they thought it was important?  Would they address it directly, or continue nibbling abstractly around the edges of institutional corruption?  Which is more effective, long-term?

REFERENCES

Captain America: TRUTH: Red, White & Black

http://marvel.com/comics/collection/23222/captain_america_the_truth_premiere_hardcover

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